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The Quantum Mind: COMT & The Prefrontal Cortex



The brain, a marvel of biological engineering, operates on both macroscopic and quantum levels, a duality that has intrigued scientists and philosophers alike. Quantum mechanics, with its principles of superposition and entanglement, suggests that the brain's functions—ranging from decision-making to the creation of memories—might not be solely the outcomes of chemical and electrical interactions. Instead, these processes could also depend on quantum operations that occur at the subatomic level, offering a new dimension to decode the enigmatic processes of thought, perception, and consciousness. This quantum perspective opens up groundbreaking pathways for research, suggesting that the essence of cognitive phenomena might lie in the uncharted territory of quantum biology, potentially revolutionizing our understanding of the mind and its capabilities.

 

The Prefrontal Cortex



The prefrontal cortex (PFC) stands at the forefront of the brain's cerebral cortex, orchestrating a symphony of cognitive functions. It embodies the nexus of personality, decision-making, and social behavior. It's a domain where thoughts and actions align with internal goals, raising intriguing questions about its operation on the quantum level.

 

Cognitive Functions and Quantum Interactions

 

The PFC's involvement in high-order cognitive processes—spanning from speech formation, gaze control, working memory, to risk processing—hints at underlying mechanisms that far exceed classical neurological explanations. The association with working memory, particularly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and risk evaluation suggests an exceptionally complex interplay of neuronal circuits.

 

Quantum theory, with its emphasis on probabilities and entanglements, offers a compelling framework for understanding these complex processes. The quantum nature of cognitive functions could potentially explain the dynamic and highly adaptable nature of human thought, where classical physics falls short. In this light, the PFC's functionality—orchestrating thoughts and actions and moderating social behavior—could be viewed through the quantum lens, emphasizing a non-linear, interconnected web of neural activity.

 

Quantum Cognition and Prefrontal Cortex

 

The concept of quantum cognition posits that human thinking sometimes follows quantum mathematical principles rather than classical logic. This theory aligns well with the functions of the PFC, especially in decision-making scenarios involving uncertainty and ambiguity. The executive functions of the PFC, including planning, personality expression, and moderating behavior, inherently entail a quantum nature of processing multiple, sometimes conflicting, possibilities simultaneously.

 

Quantum Superposition

 



Quantum superposition is a fascinating and a bit of a mind-bending concept from quantum physics. Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics, which states that particles can exist in multiple states or positions simultaneously, only becoming fixed upon observation or measurement. Imagine you have a coin and you flip it in the air. In the everyday world, the coin can either land heads up or tails up. But if this coin were in a state of quantum superposition, it would be as if the coin is both heads up and tails up at the same time, not settling on one option until you check.

 

It’s a bit like having a music playlist on shuffle. You know there are several songs that could play next, but until you actually hit the play button, any song could be the next one to play. In superposition, all the possibilities exist together until you make a measurement or observation which then decides the state of the system.

 

This idea is very different from how things seem to work in our everyday, larger-scale world, where objects appear to be in one state or the other, but not both at the time. Quantum superposition shows that at the tiny, subatomic level (like electrons or photons), particles can exist in multiple states or places at once, and only when we measure or look at these particles do they 'decide' to be in one position or state.

 

The concept of temporarily "shutting down" the prefrontal cortex to induce a quantum state of superposition in the brain merges ideas from neuroscience with speculative theories from quantum physics.

 

Orchestrated Objective Reduction (Orch-OR) Theory

 

Proposed by Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff, the Orchestrated Objective Reduction (Orch-OR) Theory dealing with consciousness suggest that consciousness might be the result of quantum processes within the brain, specifically within microtubules of neural cells.

 

This is a topic for another post and deserves its own space as it’s a massive subject.

 

Prefrontal Cortex Alteration

 

As previously stated, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is crucial for higher-order cognitive processes, including decision-making, problem-solving, and controlling social behavior. Temporarily reducing activity in the PFC, through meditation or certain substances, may aid in reducing the 'noise' of constant thinking, potentially enhancing states of altered consciousness that would allow for quantum superposition in the brain potentially allowing us to access multiple dimensions, or as some have termed the multiverse itself.

 

A new television show called Dark Matter details this exact thing.

 

Dark Matter Narrative

 

The series focuses on the journey of a physics professor, Jason Dessen, and a psychiatrist, Amanda Lucas, as they traverse alternate worlds using a unique box (hyper-cube) invented by an alternate version of Jason. This box allows them to exist in quantum superposition, similar to Schrödinger's cat, simultaneously experiencing every possible parallel universe until they choose one by opening a door.

 

The series is grounded in the "many-worlds" interpretation of quantum physics, proposing that each decision or observed event branches reality into various outcomes. This raises questions about the role of the observer in choosing a particular universe, which is influenced by the mental state of the characters, which, according to the show involves the prefrontal cortex.

 

Structural Insight and Quantum Potential

 

The front part of the brain (the prefrontal cortex or PFC) has different areas, like the dorsolateral PFC and the ventromedial PFC. These areas are important because they help with different types of thinking tasks. Because they're built differently and have a unique structure, these areas might use quantum processes—fancy rules from physics that work at a very small level—in their own special way.


 

Just like a computer network, these brain areas are all connected. We're curious about whether a physics idea called quantum entanglement—which is like a super-fast way for particles to communicate no matter how far apart they are—could be making the brain's network more efficient.

 

Also, the PFC has a big job when we're in deep sleep and when our memories become stronger. This seems to be related to how the PFC manages time during these moments. It's kind of like how, in quantum physics, time can get all tangled up, with past, present, and future all mixed together.

 

Understanding how the PFC ages and how it affects memory, using ideas from quantum physics, could help us create new ways to keep our brains healthy, especially as we get older and face diseases that affect the brain.

 

Quantum Neurochemistry and Emotional Regulation

 

On the neurochemical front, the PFC's function is highly dependent on its molecular and chemical environment. The intricate dance of neurotransmitters and their receptors within the PFC's network could be seen as operating on quantum biochemical principles. This perspective could offer new insights into how emotional regulation and social control—key aspects of the PFC's role—are mediated at the quantum level.

 

Temporary Quantum Superposition in the Brain

 

The concept of temporarily "shutting down" the prefrontal cortex to induce a quantum state of superposition in the brain merges ideas from neuroscience with theories from quantum physics.

 

Temporarily reducing activity in the PFC, through meditation or certain substances, may aid in reducing the 'electromagnetic noise' of constant thinking, potentially enhancing states of altered consciousness.



Temporarily altering or down-regulating the activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) can be achieved by various methods, including certain meditation practices and the use of mind-altering compounds. Each of these methods affects the brain differently:

 

1.     Meditation:


  • Certain types of meditation, particularly those that involve letting go of conscious control and entering a state of mental "effortlessness" or "thoughtless awareness," can lead to a reduction in PFC activity.

  • Mindfulness meditation, which involves focusing on the present moment with acceptance, may not entirely 'shut down' the PFC but can reduce activity in the Default Mode Network (DMN), which is linked to self-referential thoughts that often involve the PFC.

  • Transcendental meditation, on the other hand, is suggested to cause global reductions in cortical arousal, which could reflect decreased PFC activity as individuals transcend normal waking consciousness.


2.     Mind-Altering Compounds:


  • Psychedelics (such as LSD, psilocybin, DMT): These compounds interact primarily with serotonin receptors and have been shown to decrease blood flow and electrical activity in certain areas of the PFC, as the neural hierarchy becomes disorganized.

  • Depressants (such as alcohol, benzodiazepines): These reduce neural activity across the brain, including the PFC, by enhancing the effects of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter. This can manifest in lowered inhibitions, impaired judgment, and reduced self-control, hallmarks of PFC regulation.

 

While these methods can produce a temporary decrease in PFC activity, meditation tends to be associated with positive cognitive and mental health outcomes over the long term, whereas the repeated or extensive use of mind-altering compounds, particularly in high dosages or without medical supervision, may lead to adverse effects.

 

Many cultures and traditions around the world have a long history of using mind-altering compounds for spiritual purposes, seeking to access higher planes of reality or to facilitate communication with the divine. These practices are deeply entrenched in the spiritual and ritualistic fabric of various societies.

 

For instance, traditional societies across the globe have been using such substances for magico-spiritual and healing purposes for centuries. Archaeological evidence supports the prominent role that mind-altering agents have played in religious and spiritual rituals, suggesting their use in ceremonies aimed at altering consciousness to achieve spiritual enlightenment.

 

Furthermore, many cultures utilize natural psychedelics, such as peyote, ayahuasca, and psilocybin mushrooms, as sacraments intended to promote spiritual growth, healing, and community bonding. These practices are based on the belief that such substances can enable individuals to transcend the ordinary experiences of reality, facilitating profound mystical and spiritual experiences.

 

The use of mind-altering compounds is not limited to indigenous cultures. For instance, modern movements and churches have been established around the ceremonial use of psychedelics, reflecting a contemporary interest in the spiritual potential of these substances. This highlights the ongoing relevance and adaptability of psychoactive sacraments in diverse spiritual contexts.

 

These examples illustrate the broad and diverse cultural landscape of psychoactive substance use for spiritual purposes, offering insights into humanity's enduring quest for deeper understanding and connection with the spiritual realm.

 

In addition, various government programs such as Project MK Ultra and The Stargate Project were also reported using mind altering compounds.

 

It should be noted that these practices to 'shut down' or modulate PFC activity must be approached with caution and awareness of potential risks and side effects. And, we are in no way suggesting the use of such compounds.

 

Now, let’s explore benzodiazepines, as previously mentioned, further because of its root word “benzo”, which is related to Benzene.

 

Benzene Etymology (Ben-Zene)

 

Ben: “prayer, request, favor, compulsory service”, “supplication”, “to say”, “within, in, inside of, into”, “inner, interior”. [R]

 

Zene: music (sound, organized in time in a melodious way), musical piece or composition, ten; intelligence, intellect; mind; mind, intellect, reason, reasoning. [R]

 

Benzo Etymology

 

From benzoin, a resinous substance, dry and brittle, obtained from Styrax benzoin, a tree of Sumatra, Java, frankincense etc., having a fragrant odor, and slightly aromatic taste. It is used in the preparation of benzoic acid in medicine. [R]

 

Magnetic Properties of DNA

 

DNA's magnetic properties are powered by aromatic compounds such as Benzene. This coordination facilitates not only a consistent electron flow but also the generation of a magnetic field essential to the overarching stability and functionality of DNA as a quantum system.

 

Benz plane

 

In mathematics, a Benz plane is a type of 2-dimensional geometrical structure, named after the German mathematician Walter Benz. The term was applied to a group of objects that arise from a common axiomatization of certain structures and split into three families, which were introduced separately: Möbius planes, Laguerre planes, and Minkowski planes. [R]


 

Notice how the image of the Minkowski plane is a match to the shielding and dishielding image of benzene.



What is a Minkowski plane?

 

Imagine if you could draw a map that not only shows places but also when things happen. A Minkowski plane is kind of like that map, but for scientists studying how the universe works. It has two main parts: one for space (like where you are) and one for time (like when you're there).

 

So, instead of just drawing a path from your house to the park, a Minkowski plane would also include when you left your house and when you got to the park. This helps scientists understand how moving through space also involves moving through time, especially when things start moving really fast, like as fast as a spaceship. It's a neat way to see how space and time are connected!

 

COMT and the PFC: Tuning the Brain's Quantum Symphony

 



Catechol-O-methyltransferase is known for its role in the inactivation and metabolism of catecholamines, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, which are critical for various brain functions including cognition, mood regulation, and stress response. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a crucial role in the degradation of dopamine, particularly within the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC is highly dependent on proper dopamine signaling for its cognitive functions, which include working memory, attention, and executive functions. The activity of COMT influences the level of dopamine in the synaptic cleft, and consequently, can affect cognitive performance and the regulation of emotional responses.

 

Malfunctions in the COMT gene results in differences in the enzyme's activity—which corresponds to both lower or higher COMT activity and therefore higher or lower levels of dopamine. This impacts performance in cognitive tasks that are PFC-dependent and may also influence the susceptibility to neurological and psychiatric disorders.

 

The Etymological Cate-chol Connection

 

First, the prefix “cate” found in catechol can mean “gate” [R]. Cate is also derived from an ancient Sanskrit word काष्ठ (kāṣṭha, “wood”). The wood in this case may be a reference to creosote, or bark. What’s interesting about this is the fact that Cinchona bark is a potent source of quinine, related to hydroquinone, which is associated with Catechol. More on this later!

 

The word part "chol" in “Catechol” is a root that means "bile, gall".

 

Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a bile acid derivative that has gained interest for its potential therapeutic applications, particularly in neuroprotective contexts. In the human body, it's present in small amounts and is formed through the conjugation of taurine with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). TUDCA has been studied for its benefits across various organ systems, including the brain, liver, and eyes.

 

Brain Benefits of TUDCA:

 

1.     Neuroprotective effects: Research suggests that TUDCA can offer protection to neurons, the principal cells of the brain. TUDCA has been shown to prevent apoptotic cell death, a form of programmed cell death involved in neurodegenerative diseases, by stabilizing mitochondria and inhibiting the release of cytochrome c, a pro-apoptotic factor[1][2].

2.     Reduction of neuroinflammation: TUDCA can modulate inflammatory processes in the brain, which are implicated in conditions like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. By reducing inflammation, TUDCA may help ameliorate some of the pathological changes associated with these disorders[3].

3.     Promotion of neural cell survival: Through its interaction with various cellular signaling pathways, TUDCA encourages the survival and function of neural cells. This action can be beneficial in counteracting the effects of neurodegenerative diseases and other forms of brain injury[4].

4.     Potential in treating neurodegenerative diseases: Due to its neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties, TUDCA is being explored as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. While still under investigation, early studies and trials suggest TUDCA could slow disease progression or alleviate symptoms to some degree[5].

 

Though the research on TUDCA is promising, much of it is in early stages or based on animal models. Clinical trials are needed to fully understand its effectiveness and safety in humans, particularly regarding its use for brain-related conditions.

 

Sources:

 

Of note, Catechu is an extract of acacia trees, and Catechins are found in green tea.

 

Now, the word Catechol, such as found in Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), is the biologically important Dihydroxybenzenes; related with hydroquinone and resorcinol. [R]

 

We’ll circle back around to the importance of hydroquinone and resorcinol later.

 

Essentially, catechol is a diol of benzene, which is the very same mechanisms involved with The Quantum Computing Power of DNA.


Benzene

 

Dihydroxybenzenes lose an H+ (hydrogen ion) from one of the hydroxyls to form a type of phenolate ion.


Phenol


Imagine you have phenol, which is a compound that looks a bit like a hexagon (representing a part of a molecule called benzene) with an -OH group (this is like a little side group consisting of an oxygen and a hydrogen) attached to it. This -OH group makes phenol slightly acidic, similar to how lemon juice is acidic but much weaker.

 

Now, if you were to add something that's really basic (opposite of acidic, like baking soda in our everyday experience) to phenol, it would "snatch" the hydrogen atom away from the -OH group on phenol. This "snatching" leaves behind the rest of the phenol molecule with a negative charge where the hydrogen used to be, because it lost a positively charged hydrogen but kept its electron.

 

This remaining negatively charged part is what's called a phenolate ion. It's basically the phenol molecule missing its hydrogen atom from the -OH group, which makes it negatively charged. And because of this negative charge, it behaves differently in chemical reactions compared to the original phenol molecule.

 

Negatively charged ions, also known as anions, have several beneficial properties in various contexts:

 

1.     Chemical Reactions: Anions often play a crucial role in chemical reactions. They can act as reactants that facilitate changes by attracting positively charged ions (cations), which can lead to the formation of new products.

2.     Biological Processes: Inside the human body and in nature, anions are essential for numerous biological processes. For example, chloride ions help regulate nerve impulses and muscle contractions.

3.     Environmental Effects: Negatively charged ions are believed to improve air quality. They can neutralize pollutants and reduce contaminants in the air, potentially enhancing overall well-being.

4.     Physical Health: Some studies suggest that exposure to negative ions in the environment can have positive effects on health, such as reducing depression symptoms, boosting immune system response, and improving respiratory function.


 

Overall, negatively charged ions contribute significantly to chemistry, biology, and environmental quality, making them beneficial in various ways from industrial applications to personal health.

 

Phenolate ions, derived from phenolic compounds, play a crucial role in the body primarily through their antioxidant properties. These compounds can act against the negative effects of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by metabolic activities in the body, thereby preventing cellular damage and contributing to overall health. The antioxidant capacity of phenolic compounds, including phenolate ions, helps in the prevention of various diseases by protecting the body's cells and tissues from oxidative stress, which is linked to many chronic conditions.

 

Additionally, plant polyphenols, from which phenolate ions can be derived, have been recognized for their plethora of health benefits. This includes not only their antioxidant activity but also their potential in modulating various metabolic and chronic diseases, indicating the significant role they can play in maintaining well-being and preventing disease.

 

Phenolic compounds are a large and varied group of chemical substances that occur naturally in plants. They are characterized by the presence of one or more hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic benzene ring. Here is a concise list highlighting various types of phenolic compounds:

 

1.     Simple Phenols: Phenol itself is the simplest form of these compounds.

2.     Phenolic Acids: Includes compounds like salicylic acid and vanillic acid.

3.     Flavonoids: This group encompasses a variety of compounds including quercetin and rutin.

4.     Tannins: These are polyphenolic compounds that are rich in plants and are used for dyeing and as astringents.

5.     Lignans: Include compounds such as secoisolariciresinol which is found in flax seeds.

6.     Stilbenes: Resveratrol is a well-known compound in this class commonly associated with wine.

 

Phenolic compounds are important due to their antioxidant properties, playing a crucial role in combating oxidative stress in living organisms and are also essential in the structure and function of plants.

 

Quantum Quin Etymology

 

Let’s explore the root word of “quinine”, which derives its name from Cinchona bark, also known as Jesuit's bark [R]. Of note, Cinchona bark has saved more lives than anything on the planet, ever!

 

The root of quinine is “quin”, from Latin quantus, of Sanskrit कियत् (kiyat), ultimately meaning QUANTUM! [R, R, R]



Could it be that Cinchona bark has saved more lives than anything on the planet because of its quantum nature?

 

Its discovery and use have arguably saved more lives than most other medical advances. Europeans became aware of its benefits in the 17th century, marking a turning point in medical history. Quinine, extracted from the bark of the Cinchona tree, was the most effective treatment for malaria.

 

Its impact on global health is immense, especially considering the centuries during which it was the primary means of treatment for one of the world's most deadly diseases, affecting vast populations in tropical regions.

 

Its significance extends beyond health; quinine enabled European colonial powers to extend their reach into malaria-infested parts of South America, Africa and Asia, impacting the course of history and the global map.

 

The Cinchona tree literally shaped the maps we see today.



Hydroquinone

 

If you recall, the Catechol found in Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), is a Dihydroxybenzene that’s related to Hydroquinone.

Hydroquinone, also known as benzene-1,4-diol or quinol, is an aromatic organic compound that is a type of phenol, a derivative of benzene.

 

Hydroquinone was first obtained in 1820 by the French chemists Pelletier and Caventou via the dry distillation of quinic acid.

 

Hydroquinone undergoes oxidation under mild conditions to give benzoquinone. This process can be reversed. Some naturally occurring hydroquinone derivatives exhibit this sort of reactivity, one example being Coenzyme Q which acts as a free radical scavenger.

 

Hydroquinone has been shown to be one of the chemical constituents of the natural product propolis. [R]

 

The FDA officially banned hydroquinone in 2020.

 

The name quinone is derived from that of quinic acid (with the suffix "-one" indicating a ketone), since it is one of the compounds obtained upon oxidation of quinic acid. Quinic acid, like quinine is obtained from cinchona bark, called quinaquina in the indigenous languages of Peruvian tribes.

 

Quinones

 

Quinones are a class of organic compounds that are naturally found in plants, fungi, and bacteria. They are derived from aromatic compounds like benzene or naphthalene.

 

Properties

 

Quinones are oxidized derivatives of aromatic compounds and are often readily made from reactive aromatic compounds with electron-donating substituents such as phenols and catechols, which increase the nucleophilicity of the ring and contributes to the large redox potential needed to break aromaticity. Nucleophilicity refers to the ability of a molecule or ion to donate a pair of electrons to an electron-deficient site on another molecule, known as an electrophile, to form a chemical bond. Quinones form polymers by formation of hydrogen bonds.

 

9,10-Anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonic acid (AQDS) a quinone similar to one found naturally in rhubarb has been used as a charge carrier in metal-free flow batteries.

 

Quinone Compounds:

 

1.     Ortho-benzoquinone: Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) contain the ortho-quinone.

 

2.     Para-naphthoquinone: derived from naphthalene. Naphthoquinone forms the central chemical structure of many natural compounds, most notably the K vitamins. Other natural naphthoquinones include Juglone & Plumbagin found in Black Walnut, which is also a vitamin k analog.

 

Naphthalene is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and displays resonance and electrical conductivity and may represented by the Greek letter ρ (rho).

 

RHO meaning in Mathematics and Science

 

In the physical sciences to represent:


  • Densities: mass density, air density or charge density (ρ)

  • General quantum states

 

In mathematics to represent:


  • A length coordinate in polar, cylindrical, spherical, and toroidal coordinate systems, and toroidal and poloidal coordinates of the Earth's magnetic field.



 

So RHO represents the toroidal spin, or the quantum vortex from the Macro to the Micro. As above so below!

 

Chi Rho


The letter rho overlaid with chi forms the Chi Rho symbol, used to represent Jesus Christ. [R]

 

Chi: A life force in traditional Chinese philosophy, culture, medicine, etc, related (but not limited) to breath and circulation. [R]



Chi Rho Symbol

 

When naphthalene is combined with sulfur it takes on thermodynamic properties. Naphthalene can be hydrogenated under high pressure in the presence of metal catalysts to give 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene(C10H12), also known as tetralin. Tetralin is used as a hydrogen-donor solvent.

 

Naphthalene and its alkyl homologs are also the major constituents of creosote (guaiacum). Trace amounts of naphthalene are produced by magnolias. It is also related to terephthalic acid and the turpentine-producing tree Pistacia terebinthus and phthalic acid. See also: Camphor; from Austronesian Malay: kapur 'lime' (chalk). Combining selenium with camphor produces camphorquinone, which has an antisenescence effect prolonging lifespan.

 

Anthraquinone

 

Anthraquinones are a significant class of naturally occurring compounds that can be found in various plants, fungi, and some insects. Here are some examples of naturally occurring anthraquinone compounds:

 

  • Emodin - found in the roots and bark of numerous plants, including Rheum species (rhubarb) and Cascara sagrada.

  • Aloin - present in aloe vera leaves.

  • Rhein - obtained from Rheum species (rhubarb).

  • Chrysophanol - found in plants like rhubarb and also in fungi.

  • Physcion - occurs in lichens and fungi.

  • Hypericin - a component of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum).

  • Sennosides - derived from senna plants (Cassia species).

 

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), natural naphthoquinone compounds, and natural anthraquinones are believed to confer several benefits for brain function:

 

1.     Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ):


  • PQQ has been recognized for its role in supporting mitochondrial health, which is critical for normal brain function and overall energy production. Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of cells and are particularly abundant in the brain, as neurons require a considerable amount of energy to function properly.[1]

  • It may also provide neuroprotective benefits. PQQ can stimulate the production of nerve growth factor (NGF), which is essential for the growth and survival of neurons.[2]

  • Research suggests PQQ could potentially improve cognition and memory by reducing oxidative stress in the brain, thanks to its potent antioxidant properties, which could be more effective at scavenging free radicals compared to other antioxidants such as vitamin C.[3]


2.     Natural Naphthoquinone Compounds:


  • While less is known about the specific effects of natural naphthoquinones on brain function, compounds like juglone, plumbagin, and shikonin have shown general antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.[4] Such mechanisms can be potentially neuroprotective by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, which are contributing factors in many neurodegenerative diseases.


3.     Natural Anthraquinones:


  • The neuroprotective effects of natural anthraquinones, such as emodin, may involve anti-inflammatory properties and the prevention of neuronal damage from oxidative stress.[5]

  • Certain anthraquinones have been observed to potentially support brain health by modulating neurotransmitter levels, although more research is needed to clarify these effects and their clinical relevance.[6]


Sources:

 

Resorcinol

 

Resorcinol, previously discussed with Dihydroxybenzenes and the COMT gene, crystallizes from benzene as colorless needles that are readily soluble in water. In presence of Sulfuric acid, with twice amount of Succinic acid, Resorcinol creates Fluorescence effect on water.



Interestingly, the International commerce of sulfuric acid is controlled under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988, which lists sulfuric acid under Table II of the convention as a chemical frequently used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances.

 

Sulfur compounds such as cysteine, methionine and S-adenosylmethionine have crucial functions in many organisms. Organosulfur compounds can be divided into isothiocyanates (Watercress), nitriles, epithionitriles, thiols, sulfides, and polysulfides, as well as others, such as sulfur containing carbonyl compounds and esters, R-L-cysteine sulfoxides, and finally heterocyclic sulfur compounds found in shiitake mushrooms or truffles. Sulfur-containing compounds are commonly present in Brassica vegetables, namely broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower, or Allium vegetables, for example, garlic, leeks, and onions.

 

Succinic Acid & Electrons

 

In living organisms, succinic acid takes the form of an anion, succinate, which has multiple biological roles as a metabolic intermediate being converted into fumarate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase in complex 2 of the electron transport chain which is involved in making ATP, and as a signaling molecule reflecting the cellular metabolic state. Succinate is generated in mitochondria via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Succinate can exit the mitochondrial matrix and function in the cytoplasm as well as the extracellular space, changing gene expression patterns, modulating epigenetic landscape or demonstrating hormone-like signaling. As such, succinate links cellular metabolism, especially ATP formation, to the regulation of cellular function.

 

Succinic acid is derived from Latin succinum, meaning amber [R]. Amber is fossilized tree resin.

 

The classical names for amber, Latin electrum and Ancient Greek ἤλεκτρον (ēlektron), are connected to a term ἠλέκτωρ (ēlektōr) meaning "beaming Sun".

 

Succinic acid à Amber à Electron

 

According to myth, when Phaëton son of Helios (the Sun) was killed, his mourning sisters became poplar trees, and their tears became elektron, amber. The word elektron gave rise to the words electric, electricity, and their relatives because of amber's ability to bear a charge of static electricity.

 

Poplar trees, which belong to the genus Populus, produce a sticky resin-like substance known as propolis or poplar gum. Propolis is produced when the tree secretes a resin to seal wounds or protect itself against pests and diseases; however, bees also collect the substance and mix it with beeswax and their own secretions to create what is commonly known as bee propolis.

 

Amber is produced from a marrow discharged by trees belonging to the pine genus. The juice of a tree gave it the name of "succinum" which emits a pine-like smell when rubbed and burns when ignited. The reference to the tears of poplar trees are in actuality the gum that gets excreted from the pine tree, such as Gum Thus (Frankincense).

 

Though not typically associated with pine trees, "gum thus" or "frankincense" is a type of resin that comes from trees of the genus Boswellia, which belongs to the same order as pine trees (Pinales).

 

Gum turpentine is a volatile oil distilled from pine resin and may be found in Maritime Pine.

 

Therefore, combining Propolis, Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol), and Boswellia serrata may produce an internal electrical field (elektron) associated with Succinic acid, or amber.

 

Helios Gene

 

The HELIOS gene, also called IKAROS Family Zinc Finger 2, encodes a member of the Ikaros family of zinc-finger proteins. This family of transcription factors consists of five members: Ikaros (Ikzf1), Helios (Ikzf2), Aiolos (Ikzf3), Eos (Ikzf4), and Pegasus (Ikzf5). The Ikaros family members are involved in the hematopoietic development.

 

  • Ikaros, known as Icarus in English, is a renowned figure in Greek mythology for his tragic flight.

  • Helios in ancient Greek religion and mythology is the god who personifies the Sun.

  • Aiolos, also known as Aeolus, is a significant figure in Greek mythology, recognized primarily as the divine keeper of the winds.

  • Eos, in ancient Greek mythology and religion, is recognized as the goddess and personification of the dawn. Each morning, she emerged from her home at the edge of the Oceanus, heralding the arrival of the sun across the sky. She is the sister of Helios, the sun god, and Selene, the moon goddess, establishing her as an integral part of the celestial family that governs the day and night cycle.

  • Pegasus is a celebrated figure in Greek mythology, depicted as a magnificent winged horse.

 

The Blood Brain Barrier & Bees

 

Hematopoietic development refers to the process by which hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow produce all types of blood cells throughout a person's life. This complex process involves the differentiation of pluripotent HSCs into multipotent progenitors, which further differentiate into specific types of blood cells like red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Recent studies have suggested that cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells can influence blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Dysregulation in these cell populations could potentially impact BBB function, leading to increased vulnerability of the brain to damage and disease.

 

Hematopoietic development has an impact on the immune system's regulation, and immune cells, which are a product of hematopoiesis, can affect the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a physical and functional barrier that selectively regulates the passage of cells, molecules, and ions between the bloodstream and the central nervous system (CNS). It also protects the brain from pathogens and maintains the CNS homeostatic environment.

 

Development and maintenance of the BBB involve complex interactions between the endothelial cells lining the brain blood vessels, pericytes, astrocytes, microglia, and neurons. While these cells are derived from various origins, the role of hematopoietic cells in BBB function becomes apparent in situations like inflammation and immune response:

 

1.     Immune Surveillance: Some immune cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells, like monocytes and lymphocytes, can cross the BBB in a tightly regulated manner to perform immune surveillance of the CNS. This process is critical for identifying and clearing potential threats, such as viruses or bacteria.

2.     Neuroinflammation and BBB Integrity: When a threat to the CNS is identified, hematopoietic cells, particularly those involved in the inflammatory response (e.g., monocytes), can become activated and release cytokines and chemokines. These inflammatory mediators can disrupt the BBB by altering the tight junctions between the endothelial cells, leading to increased permeability.

3.     Impact on the Prefrontal Cortex: The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is an area of the brain responsible for higher cognitive functions like decision-making, attention, and social behavior. When the BBB's integrity is compromised, it can lead to neuroinflammation or the entry of neurotoxic substances that would otherwise be excluded. Over time, this can affect neuronal health and connectivity in the PFC, potentially impacting its function. Additionally, chronic BBB disruption has been associated with various neurological disorders, and these conditions can manifest cognitive and behavioral symptoms linked to PFC dysfunction.

 

Any changes or dysfunctions in hematopoietic development that lead to abnormal immune responses can compromise BBB function, which may, in turn, affect the prefrontal cortex and its associated cognitive functions.

 

In Greek mythology, Icarus (IKAROS) disobeyed his father and soared into the sky. He came too close to the sun (HELIOS), and the heat melted the beeswax holding his feathers together. Icarus fashioned himself greater than Helios, the Sun himself, and the god punished him by directing his powerful rays at him, melting the beeswax (Propolis).

 

Compounds for IKAROS Related Genes:

 

Ikaros (Ikzf1): [R]


  • 1-Ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone/Benzimidazolinone

 

The first thing you should recognize is the prefix “benz”, which is related to Benzene. The etymology (Ben-Zene):


  • Ben: “prayer, request, favor, compulsory service”, “supplication”, “to say”, “within, in, inside of, into”, “inner, interior”[R].


  • Zene: music (sound, organized in time in a melodious way), musical piece or composition, ten; intelligence, intellect; mind; mind, intellect, reason, reasoning. [R]

 

1-Ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone is a chemical compound belonging to the class of imidazoles. These compounds are notable for their presence in many biologically active molecules and pharmaceuticals, including several types of antifungal agents known as azole antifungals. Its characteristics and applications are investigated in various fields of science, including pharmacology where it acts as a modulator of calcium-activated potassium channels (K(Ca) channels). This modulation is significant for research on cellular hyperpolarization, a process relevant to the regulation of blood vessel tone and other physiological functions. Furthermore, 1-Ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone has been studied for its ability to enhance differentiation of pacemaker-like cells in developmental biology, indicating its potential utility in medical research and therapy involving heart rhythm and related conditions. [R, R]

 

Azoles:

 

1.     Cinnamon

2.     Dulse - Red Algae

3.     Andrographis

4.     Resveratrol

5.     Trikatu / Piper longum linn - Long Pepper Fruit (Piper longum) - Black Pepper seed (Piper nigrum)

 

Azole etymology: azo +‎ -ole [R]

 

Azo: azote, nitrogen; compounds containing a two atom nitrogen group (-N=N-) uniting two hydrocarbon radicals, as in azobenzene. [R]


Ole: Often supposed to be from Arabic الله (allāh, “God!”), used e.g. to express surprise, excitement, etc., and/or from related وَاللهِ (wa-llāhi, “by God!”), used as an oath or strong agreement. [R]

 

Azobenzene

 

Azobenzene is a special kind of chemical that can change its shape and chemical nature when it's exposed to light. This kind of chemical is known as a photoswitch because it can switch how it looks and behaves with light. Azo compounds, which azobenzene is part of, come from a basic form called diazene, and these kinds are sometimes called "diazenes." They are really good at soaking up light. These light-absorbing chemicals are crucial for making tiny light-powered engines and machines work. A key feature of a photoswitch like azobenzene is its ability to efficiently use the light it captures to change its form, a process known as photoisomerization.

 

Rhodopsins

 

Within our bodies, we have special sensors in our cells that react to light, and an important group of these are called Rhodopsins. These are like tiny switches in the cell membranes that change when they get hit by light. They help with a bunch of stuff like controlling the pigment in our skin, helping us see, managing the release of the sleep hormone melatonin, and keeping our internal body clock running on time. Rhodopsins are really good at changing quickly when they're hit by light, an ability they share with other similar light-reactive substances. These changes happen really fast and are connected to a part of our eye called the retina, and also with special channels and pumps found in tiny organisms like bacteria that are controlled by light.




 

Research

 

Researchers are making progress in helping restore sight using light-reactive chemicals called photochromic compounds. These compounds can change quickly when hit by light, allowing certain cells in the retina to activate. Recent studies, particularly with a combination called acrylamide-azobenzene-quaternary ammonia, have even restored some sight in blind mice.

 

Scientists are also embedding these light-switchable compounds into biological molecules, providing a way to control various biological processes using light. This includes regulating how proteins fold and function, controlling the process of making DNA and RNA, managing the activity of enzymes, and turning ion channels on and off with light. For instance, by using light, researchers can control how certain proteins in human blood bind to other molecules. They've also used a modified type of azobenzene to manage receptors in the brain related to glutamate that are important for transmitting signals.

 

Benzimidazolinone is a compound derivative of UREA. Like other ureas, it engages in hydrogen bonding, yielding supramolecular structures. [R]

 

The word “UREA” is an ancient Sanskrit word (वरस्) that means “expanse, space, or dimension” [R].



Derivatives of resorcinol are found in different natural sources. Alkylresorcinols are found in rye.

 

Some mind-altering compounds can indeed be derived from rye, the most notable being lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD is a potent hallucinogen synthesized from lysergic acid, which is a compound derived from ergot.

 

Resorcinol is also an Ultraviolet (UV) light absorber is resins.

Resorcinol is also a common scaffold that is found in a class of anticancer agents which binds to inhibits the N-terminal domain of heat shock protein 90, which is a drug target for anticancer treatments.

 

Resorcinol is so named because of its derivation from ammoniated resin gum, and for its relation to the chemical orcinol, which is a compound that occurs in many species of lichens.

 

Here are some of the more commonly known and historically significant resin gums across different regions and their uses.

 

Resins

 

1.     Amber 

2.     Frankincense (Boswellia)

3.     Myrrh 

4.     Dragon's Blood 

5.     Mastic (Pistacia lentiscus)

6.     Dammar 

 

Gums

 

1.     Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal)

2.     Guar Gum 

3.     Xanthan Gum 

 

In ancient times Greeks knew about electricity. They called amber “electron”. This mineral could produce static electricity being rubbed with a piece of woolen cloth. The classical names for amber, Latin electrum and Ancient Greek ἤλεκτρον (ēlektron), are connected to a term ἠλέκτωρ (ēlektōr) meaning "beaming Sun". According to myth, when Phaëton son of Helios (the Sun) was killed, his mourning sisters became poplar trees, and their tears became elektron, amber.

 

The word elektron gave rise to the words electric, electricity, and their relatives because of amber's ability to bear a charge of static electricity.

 

Amber resin may be considered as the "Nectar of the Gods."

 

Conclusion

 

The exploration of the quantum dimensions within biological systems brings to light intriguing parallels between advanced scientific concepts and the fundamental structures of life. In the pursuit to decode the functionalities of the brain and DNA through a quantum lens, researchers propose that both may operate under principles akin to quantum computing.

 

The prefrontal cortex of the brain, a hub for advanced cognitive processes, is analyzed with considerations of quantum mechanics, particularly looking at how quantum states may influence decision-making and emotional regulations through the modulation of neurotransmitters like dopamine. The presence of enzyme variabilities, such as in COMT, further illustrates the micro-mechanical flexibility and adaptive capabilities of the brain, rooted possibly in quantum processes.

 

Similarly, DNA's structure and function are likened to quantum systems where high-fidelity information transfer and superdense coding may occur, suggesting a model of biological computing that exceeds the capacity of synthetic systems. The intricate and reliable transmission of genetic information mimics quantum entanglement and coherence, proposing a model where life itself may be viewed as an output of quantum computations.

 

These perspectives not only broaden the understanding of cognitive and genetic frameworks but also touch upon philosophical and existential inquiries into the origin and intricate design of life, hinting at potential divine or transcendent aspects in the natural blueprint of the universe. This synthesis of quantum physics with biological insights offers a new dimension to our understanding of life's complexity and the universal laws that govern it.

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